Basic Elements of a Fiber Optic Communication System

For gigabits and beyond gigabits transmission of data, the fiber optic communication is the ideal choice. This type of communication is used to transmit voice, video, telemetry and data over long distances and local area networks or computer networks. A fiber Optic Communication System uses lightwave technology to transmit the data over a fiber by changing electronic signals into light.

Some exceptional characteristic features of this type of communication system like large bandwidth, smaller diameter, lightweight, long-distance signal transmission, low attenuation, transmission security, and so on make this communication a major building block in any telecommunication infrastructure. The subsequent information on fiber optic communication system highlights its characteristic features, basic elements, and other details.

copper_and_fibre_optic_structured_cabling

How a Fiber Optic Communication Works?

Unlike copper wire-based transmission where the transmission entirely depends on electrical signals passing through the cable, the fiber optics transmission involves the transmission of signals in the form of light from one point to the other. Furthermore, a fiber optic communication network consists of transmitting and receiving circuitry, a light source and detector devices like the ones shown in the figure.

When the input data, in the form of electrical signals, is given to the transmitter circuitry, it converts them into a light signal with the help of a light source. This source is of LED whose amplitude, frequency and phases must remain stable and free from fluctuation in order to have an efficient transmission. The light beam from the source is carried by a fiber optic cable to the destination circuitry wherein the information is transmitted back to the electrical signal by a receiver circuit.

Fiber Optic Communication

The Receiver circuit consists of a photodetector along with an appropriate electronic circuit, which is capable of measuring the magnitude, frequency, and phase of the optic field. This type of communication uses the wavelengths near to the infrared band that is just above the visible range. Both LED and Laser can be used as light sources based on the application.

3 Basic Elements of a Fiber Optic Communication System

There are three main basic elements of a fiber optic communication system. They are

  1. Compact Light Source
  2. Low loss Optical Fiber
  3. Photo Detector

Accessories like connectors, switches, couplers, multiplexing devices, amplifiers, and splices are also essential elements in this communication system.

1. Compact Light Source

Depending on the applications like local area networks and the long haul communication systems, the light source requirements vary. The requirements of the sources include power, speed, spectral linewidth, noise, ruggedness, cost, temperature, and so on. Two components are used as light sources: light emitting diodes (LED’s) and laser diodes.

The light emitting diodes are used for short distances and low data rate applications due to their low bandwidth and power capabilities. Two such LEDs structures include Surface and Edge Emitting Systems. The surface emitting diodes are simple in design and are reliable, but due to its broader line width and modulation frequency limitation edge emitting diode are mostly used. Edge-emitting diodes have high power and narrower linewidth capabilities.

For longer distances and high data rate transmission, Laser Diodes are preferred due to its high power, high speed, and narrower spectral line width characteristics. But these are inherently non-linear and more sensitive to temperature variations.

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Nowadays many improvements and advancements have made these sources more reliable. A few of such comparisons of these two sources are given below. Both these sources are modulated using either direct or external modulation techniques.

2. Low Loss Optical Fiber

The optical fiber is a cable, which is also known as cylindrical dielectric waveguide made of low loss material. An optical fiber also considers the parameters like the environment in which it is operating, the tensile strength, durability and rigidity. The Fiber optic cable is made of high quality extruded glass (si) or plastic, and it is flexible. The diameter of the fiber optic cable is in between 0.25 to 0.5mm (slightly thicker than a human hair).

Fiber Optic Communication

A Fiber Optic Cable consists of four parts.

  • Core
  • Cladding
  • Buffer
  • Jacket

Core

The core of a fiber cable is a cylinder of plastic that runs all along the fiber cable’s length, and offers protection by cladding. The diameter of the core depends on the application used. Due to internal reflection, the light travelling within the core reflects from the core, the cladding boundary. The core cross section needs to be a circular one for most of the applications.

Cladding

Cladding is an outer optical material that protects the core. The main function of the cladding is that it reflects the light back into the core. When light enters through the core (dense material) into the cladding(less dense material), it changes its angle, and then reflects back to the core.

Buffer

The main function of the buffer is to protect the fiber from damage and thousands of optical fibers arranged in hundreds of optical cables. These bundles are protected by the cable’s outer covering that is called jacket.

JACKET

Fiber optic cable’s jackets are available in different colors that can easily make us recognize the exact color of the cable we are dealing with. The color yellow clearly signifies a single mode cable, and orange color indicates multimode.

2 Types of Optical Fibers

Single-Mode Fibers: Single-mode fibers are used to transmit one signal per fiber; these fibers are used in telephone and television sets. Single mode fibers have small cores.

Multi-Mode Fibers: Multimode fibers are used to transmit many signals per fiber; these signals are used in computer and local area networks that have larger cores.

3. Photo Detectors

The purpose of photodetectors is to convert the light signal back to an electrical signal. Two types of photodetectors are mainly used for an optical receiver in an optical communication system: PN photodiode and avalanche photodiode. Depending on the application’s wavelengths, the material composition of these devices vary. These materials include silicon, germanium, InGaAs, etc.

This is all about the basic elements of the fiber optic communication system. For additional information, and for any kind of assistance, please write to us as we encourage and appreciate your suggestions, feedback, queries, and comments. Please share your ideas, suggestions, and comments in the comment section given below.

Smart Village

What is the Smart Village initiative?

In Smart Village access to sustainable energy services acts as a catalyst for development – enabling the provision of good education and healthcare, access to clean water, sanitation and nutrition, the growth of productive enterprises to boost incomes, and enhanced security, gender equality, and democratic engagement.

Why Fiber Optic Cable Network for Smart Village?

 

  • Optical Fiber has expandable Unlimited Bandwidth capacity.
  • OFC carries high-bandwidth signal at long distance using light waves.
  • It is scalable and reliable for future upgradations and additional bandwidth demands.
  • Fiber is strong medium with a capability of transferring petabytes of data. We use this capability for supporting advanced applications and services like CCTV Surveillance, High-Speed Internet, Multipoint connectivity, Wi-Fi Hotspot, Live Streaming, Smart Street Light and so on.
  • It is inevitable to use OFC backbone against traditional wired medium, wireless medium for high bandwidth intensive applications.
  • These salient features converge OFC backbone to be ”Future-Proof”.
  • OFC network have higher and long-term durable network life.
  • Technological growth and communication of the globe are dependent on OFC infrastructure.

smart Village

Solution On Underground Optical Fiber Cable Network

  • UG OFC Network                                                
  • High-Speed Internet
  • Wi-Fi Hot Spot
  • Village based Wi-Fi Service
  • CCTV Surveillance
  • Cable TV
  • Voice (Land line Telephone)
  • Video Conferencing
  • Smart Pole
  • Smart Street Light
  • Public Announcement
  • Digital Display Board
  • e-Education
  • e-Health Care
  • Smart Agriculture
  • e-Payment

R K Infratel - GUJ. - TEXT

 

How To Protect Your Self Against Cyber Attacks

We live in an era, where cyber security is a momentous issue. Cyber Attacks are becoming the new normal nowadays.so what makes you think that you will be spared by Cyber Attacks? we have suggested some steps remember for the rest of your life to safe guard yourself from very common Cyber Attacks. so, let’s get back to the original question!

1. Instead of ‘Passwords’, Use ‘Passphrases’ for Different websites
Use different user ID/password combinations for different accounts and avoid writing them down. you can create more complicated passwords by combining letters, numbers, special characters (minimum 8 characters in total) and change them on a regular basis.
Using passphrases is a wonderful idea, sentences such as ILoveFacebookSoMuch are very hard to crack!

You probably don’t want to remember too many passwords for too many websites.you can create your own format for passwords. for example: yourname(xx)@websitename, where xx is any 2 digits random number

2. Secure your computer/laptop physically and by:

Activating your firewall

A Firewall works exactly as the name suggests. it monitors all the incoming and outgoing traffic towards your computer. If your antivirus doesn’t include a  firewall, make sure you have windows firewall ‘Activated’.

Cyber Attacks

Using Anti-Virus/Anti-Malware software
Prevent viruses from infecting your computer by installing and regularly updating Licensed anti-virus software. New research from Microsoft shows that nearly 10% of Windows 8 users are running expired AV software on their systems, making them four times more likely to get infected.To ensure maximum cyber security, most of the antivirus software protects from virus, malware, and rootkits, so you may not have to install multiple software.

Prevent spyware from getting into your computer by NOT installing ‘cracked’ software

Do not install cracked software or apps, as they may install some other malicious software too!
Don’t just click NEXT.NEXT….NEXT..while installing a software.choose “custom installation” mode instead of “standard installation” mode.you will be able to save yourself from installing other software, toolbars.check for them now and uninstall existing extras from “Uninstall a program” in control panel.

3. Never upload your personal data ‘unencrypted’ to dropbox, google drive or any online file sharing services.
It takes not more than 5 minutes to encrypt a zip file or any single file such as a photo, video or a document with AES-256 bit encryption.but it saves you from getting your personal data leaked.and you can relax even if these big companies face a data breach!if using windows, use bitlocker to encrypt hard disk drives with important data!

4. Crosscheck your Social-Media security settings
Make sure your social networking profiles (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, google+ etc.) are set to private. Check your security settings. never post sensitive information about you online!.  Once it is on the Internet, it is there forever!commenting on various website may show up after 2 years in Google search result of your name!try a google search for your name with double quotes.

 

5. WiFi-The most vulnerable network Ever!!

Always secure your wifi with secure password, WPA2 encryption, etc. Do NOT use public wi-fi for transactions.
if not properly configured, every wifi is vulnerable.

Review and modify default settings and passwords. Never use public wifi, if you have some personal /secret information in your personal/office laptop, they are vulnerable. Avoid conducting financial or corporate transactions on these networks.

6. Encrypt your data (!Important) 
Use encryption for your most sensitive files such as tax returns or financial records, make regular back-ups of all your important data and store it in another location. Do not leave your credit card around that tempts children to use them.

7. Secure your Mobile Devices Physically and Digitally. 
Be aware that your mobile device is vulnerable to viruses and hackers.Take care of the security even though you download apps ONLY from ‘Google Play store’.Worst case scenario is getting your phone camera hacked and the hackers may steal the photographs which THEY took from your mobile.

8. Protect your e-identity, look for https://

Be cautious when giving out personal information such as your name, number, address or financial information on the Internet. Make sure that websites are secure and using https.their address will be look like this.
https://www.facebook.com.
https is essential for websites which involve financial transactions. it means the data you send and receive is encrypted.

9. Do NOT store your card details on websites         
If a website insists for storing your credit card information so that your transactions can be processed faster next time, back off! you will never want to find your credit card information if that website’s database is dumped on pastebin or ghostbin like websites. try searching for last 6 or 8 digits of your credit cards numbers in Google with double quotes to make sure that your credit card info is not available on the internet.(it may be available in deepweb).

10. Got hacked??Call the right person/ lawyer / LEA for help
Don’t panic! If you are a victim, if you come to know about any illegal Internet content (e.g. child exploitation) or if you suspect a computer crime, identity theft or a financial scam, report that to respected law enforcement agency. If you have any problems with your personal computer, ask for help only to a trusted person or a certified technician.

11. Never Trust E-mails

Do not trust emails which offers prize money through lotteries of which you are not a participant. Similarly, don’t pay for the job works which you are not in correspondence through official channels. Don’t give your credit card number(s) and CVV numbers online unless the site is a secured and reputable site. Sometimes a tiny icon of a padlock appears to symbolize a higher level of security but it may be just an image. This icon is not a guarantee of a secure site, but might provide you some assurance.

12. Do not share a code received accidentally via 2 step verification!
Enable 2 step verification. In addition to entering your password, you are also asked to enter a verification code sent via SMS to your phone(if logged in from an unusual device). So a hacker might crack your password, stealing your password may be an easy task for some hackers ,but hacking into your android and read the OTP /security code sent via sms can be a tough job.Hackers might try to get that code from you using social engineering.but don’t forward that code to anyone.

13. Review your credit card statements

Even after taking care of these, make sure you are not already being hacked! look for your credit card /bank statements.Don’t ignore even if a small amount is deducted suspiciously, report that.it may be part of a salami attack.in which small fraction of money is stolen from millions of people.

Compare Fiber Optic Network and Copper Cable

Business Advantages of Fiber Optic Network

While most business decision-makers are aware of the speed benefits of fiber optic Network, other advantages are less commonly understood. Spending on a newer technology can feel risky, especially for organizations who rely heavily on their Internet connectivity for customer communications, productivity, and collaboration.

In this article, you’ll learn a bit more about the various ways fiber-optic Internet compares to standard copper cable, including bandwidth potential, speed, reliability, among other factors.

1. Bandwidth

Investing in fiber optic Network internet can significantly increase your bandwidth potential. Copper wire infrastructure and TDM technology are limited in nature. Because it was originally designed for transmitting voice calls only, the demand for bandwidth wasn’t high. For instance, T-1 can only carry 1.5 Mbps of throughput. And because of how electrical signaling works, many types of connections over copper are limited by distance.

Ethernet over Copper service (EoC) is typically not available if the circuit is longer than 15,000 feet. For organizations considering shifting their voice communications to Voice-Over-IP (VoIP), having your bandwidth delivered over fiber can be an indispensable asset.

2. Upload/Download Speed

Is the speed increase of fiber optic Network  internet noticeable compared to copper? Absolutely.

Many Atlantech Online customers using fiber to connect to our network can transmit data at 1 gigabit per second. That’s many times faster than the federal government’s definition of broadband service, which is 25Mbps uploads and 3Mbps for downloads as of January 2015.

Tech blog NorthWest writes that downloads that take 22 minutes over most copper wire Internet connections, can take as little as 8 seconds on Internet connectivity delivered over fiber.

With this technological advancement, the concept of “waiting for things to load” is about to be a thing of the past.

3. Distance

The signal for copper Internet networks degrades as the signal is carried from the central office (CO). Fiber was originally used for long haul networks. Cell phone towers in remote locations use fiber optic cable to connect towers to the network.

According to Blackbox Technology, certain types of fiber connections can be transmitted for almost 25 miles. While most business build outs won’t require similarly robust types of fiber connections, your signal isn’t in danger of degrading within metro fiber rings that would serve your business.

Fiber Optic Network

4. Security

In an era of increased attention towards cyber security, fiber-optic internet is touted as a cost-effective way of instantly increasing your Internet security. Intercepting copper cable can be performed by connecting taps to a line to pick up the electronic signals.

Putting a tap on a fiber-optic internet cable to intercept data transmissions is incredibly difficult. It’s also easy to quickly identify compromised cables, which visibly emit light from transmissions.

5. Reliability

There are a number of factors that can cause outages when an organization is reliant on copper cable-based internet. Temperature fluctuations, severe weather conditions, and moisture can all cause a loss of connectivity. Old or worn copper cable can even present a fire hazard, due to the fact it carries an electric current. Additional reliability concerns associated with copper include risks of interference from electronic or radio signals. Additionally, copper wires are accessed in the building by telephone company personnel and sometimes they can make mistakes and fiddle with the wrong wires. Also, copper wires all go back to the telephone company Central Office where disconnections can happen. Fiber is typically independent of the phone company, their equipment and their termination points.

6. Cable Size

The speed of internet transmitted via copper cable is directly correlated with the weight of cable used. For a business to achieve a higher speeds, more cable must be used, which requires more space in a company’s telecommunications room.

Fiber cable’s speed is not connected to its size, and it’s far lighter weight than copper. This renders it easier to use, and less demanding of limited space in small rooms.

7. Cost

Investing in fiber internet will cost more than copper in the short term though costs are drastically decreasing as this option becomes more commonplace. Ultimately, the total cost of ownership (TCO) over the lifetime of fiber is lower. It’s more durable, cheaper to maintain, and requires less hardware.

The advantages of fiber make it overall, a more cost-effective investment for organizations of all sizes.

8. It’s Sturdier

Copper cable is a relatively delicate technology. Typically, it can sustain about 25 pounds of pressure without being damaged, which means it can be compromised with relative ease during routine operations in a company’s telecommunications space.

In contrast, fiber can withstand about 100-200 pounds of pressure, meaning it is far less likely to be damaged during routine operations in close proximity.

Investing in Fiber Optic Internet

While organizational information technology needs can vary drastically, the benefits of fiber-optic internet are making it an increasingly common choice for business data transmission. Companies who choose to invest in fiber typically find that the total cost of ownership, bandwidth potential, and speed gains are noticeable.

For more information on Atlantech’s fiber internet solutions for businesses, click here to learn more about connecting your location.

 

RK Infratel associated with ISP partner in Sparkle 2017

Sparkle International 2017” – Gem & Jewellery Exhibition is a part of the Vibrant Gujarat Summit and introduction to the Vibrant Gujarat Summit organized from January 19 – 22, 2017. This will be 9th Edition of “Sparkle International” organized by “The Southern Gujarat Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SGCCI).

R K Infratel Ltd is Associated with ISP partner in sparkle International-2017.Airlink gives free wi-Fi Service in Sparkle International  from 19-22 January,2017.

Sparkle 2017

RK Infratel Ltd is specialist in the operations of Optical Fiber Cable Implementation, Turnkey Project Solutions on OFC and Copper.

Intracity and Intercity Connectivity, OFC Blowing work, HDD Work (for Telecom, Gas, Oil, Water and Drainage), Operation & Maintenance (O & M) work of OFC, NLD and MAN and OFC Splicing Services for Telco’s.

R.K. INFRATEL started to deploy its own underground Optical Fibre infrastructure in Gujarat State. In the year of 2009-2010 we originated to start deployment of underground OFC Network in Surat & by the end of year 2010, we rolled out more than 200 KMs underground OFC infrastructure in and around Surat. Considering the growing global demand of high capacity and fast communications, we planned to develop & design of underground fibre optic cable infrastructure. And as of now, we have built more than 350 KMs underground OFC network along with multiple numbers of HDPE duct through HDD method. As a leading Infrastructure Service provider, we have championed ourselves in infrastructure designing, constructing & maintaining of OFC Network. Our success is based on our ability to respond quickly and creatively to our customer’s information systems challenges. We have well developed and a highly motivated skilled workforce of more than 250 individuals, who shares a deep commitment and knowledge to the company’s mission and its customer intimate nature.

Today RK Infratel Ltd Owns and deploys more than 1700Km of OFC Network in Vapi, Silvassa, Bhilad, Sanjan, Valsad, Surat, Ankleshwar, Jhagadia, Ahmedabad and is proposing to expand the network in other cities of Gujarat.

R.K. Group launched its Internet Service arm, a wholly owned subsidiary of the company. R.K. is engaged in building the next generation Wired & Wireless Broadband Services integrated with Underground Optical Fibre for Residential, SME and Corporate customers

 

Future Trends in Fiber Optics Communication

Fiber Optics Communication can be used to transmit light and thus information over long distances. Fiber-based systems have largely replaced radio transmitter systems for long-haul optical data transmission.

They are widely used for telephony, but also for Internet traffic, long high-speed local area networks (LANs), cable TV (CATV), and increasingly also for shorter distances within buildings. In most cases, silica fibers are used, except for very short distances, where plastic optical fibers can be advantageous.

Mostly due to their very high data transmission capacity, Fiber Optics Communication systems can achieve a much lower cost than systems based on coaxial copper cables, if high data rates are needed. For low data rates, where their full transmission capacity cannot be utilized, fiber-optic systems may have less of an economic advantage, or may even be more expensive (not due to the fibers, but the additional transceivers). The primary reason, however, for the still widespread use of copper cables for the “last mile” (the connection to the homes and offices) is simply that copper cables are already laid out, whereas new digging operations would be required to lay down additional fiber cables.

Fiber Optics Communication are already extensively used within metropolitan areas (metro fiber links), and even fiber to the home (FTTH) spreads more and more – particularly in Japan, where private Internet users can already obtain affordable Internet connections with data rates of 100 Mbit/s – well above the performance of current ADSL systems, which use electrical telephone lines. In other countries, one often tries to squeeze out higher transmission capacities from existing copper cables, e.g. with the technique of vectoring, in order to avoid the cost of laying down fiber cables to the premises. This, however, is more and more seen only as a temporary solution, which cannot satisfy further growth of bandwidth demand.

 

Fiber Optics Communication

Today’s generation is connected unlike any other. Currently more than 2 billion kilometers of optical fiber is deployed around the world, linking people, businesses, communities, countries, and continents together.

The technology to instantly and globally share voice, data, video, and applications such as file-sharing, online gaming, video on demand, and HDTV continues to push communications networks to expand and evolve. Since our invention of the first low-loss optical fiber, we have continued to develop and deliver new generations of optical fibre technology, fueling the global expansion of broadband connectivity.

Due to its compatibility with other technologies and nearly unlimited bandwidth capacity, optical fibre has the ability to grow and adapt to future communication needs. We began the Fiber Optics Communication revolution and will continue to lead the industry in developing the next generation of technology for the communications networks of today and tomorrow.

Achievement of RK Infratel In Cable TV department

R.K. INFRATEL LTD. An ISO 9001:2015 Certified is a leading Infrastructure Service Provider company for Telecom/Oil/Gas/CATV/ISP in Gujarat, India.

presentation1

We were established in 1990 with Small Operation in the field of Textile Machine parts, Cable TV Services, Telecom Service Provider and Private Telephone Exchange. After a long years’​ experience, we diversified in Infrastructure Business in 2006. R. K. Infratel proud to associate by providing connectivity with first of its kind project in starting the new era of security, surveillance for safety of People of Surat by becoming the Core Part in the Surat Safe City project – the First Project in INDIA for covering whole city on hi-tech CCTV network by PPP Scheme.

We won the contract of  Bi-ARC for Relay , Display & Maintenance of Cable TV in KRIBHCO Township .Its a great achievement for Rk Infratel Ltd .

TATA Communications applauds RK Infratel ‘s Excellence

Persistence in Excellence is in the DNA of RK Infratel Ltd. And in a recent feat, we are proud say that we have done it again in a recent project for connecting BAU Branches of SBI with partnership of Tata Communications limited.

This Project Connects All SBI Branches to each other through Optical fiber network as well as RF Link in remote area. Not only did RK Infratel provide the connectivity in record time in these remote areas despite of number of obstacles, RK Infratel is also appreciated by the officials involved in the project.

“Putting on records the “APPRECIATION”for support in implementing SBI in particular and some of the BAU links. It was with lot of belief we started this partnership with RK INFRATEL and I would say it was a right pick. En-route to SBI implementation while we could see lot of challenges but importantly RK INFRATEL was determined to encounter and mitigate any number of obstacles.

My personal and special thanks to you as you have been sparing time as and when asked for to monitor the project health and progress.

Looking forward to strengthen this relationship further in coming times.”
Mr. Sanjay Bhat / Mr. Taraknath Mitra / Mr. Netaji Patil / Mr. Chirag Amin / Mrs. Meenakshi Gautam -TATA COMMUNICATIONS

Tips to Successfully expand Smart Cities

Why some cities successfully expand Smart cities  initiatives whereas other are failed? Why some take ages to make the first step from blueprint to a tangible Smart City solution? Why are some cities have passion  to  expand fancy smart city solutions wheres others start with simple cost  decrements solutions ? What’s the secret of successfully expanding a Smart City?

Expand Smart Cities

Here are a compilation of 10 Tips to successfully expand Smart Cities:

  1. Find a visionary leader – Be it the Mayor of the City or appoint a Chief Smart City Officer that can champion the whole project and have the authority to gather and lead all the related stakeholders
  2. Move beyond planning – Move beyond Blueprints and Smart City Frameworks. It looks nice on paper – but the real job is on the ground making things happen. That’s where you will see all the obstacles and the reality.
  3. Begin pilots that prove value – Start small but with the big vision in mind. Pilots will be abe to test the business models and the acceptance of solution by both citizens and city authorities.
  4. Understand the costs and benefits – Benchmark before the start of the project so that you can measure the costs and benefits during the entire implementation. Most of the time it will take years before you can see the impact to the society. It’s a long-term vision that requires patience. Along the period, you might see changes in the political governing parties, but we must ensure the end game must remain the same.
  5. Explore available funding options – No longer the only source of funding will come from the government. PPP (public-private-partnership) will be the option. In fact, there is this concept of getting PPP (which includes People) funding.
  6. Improve internal support – Many smart city solutions can become “white elephants” after a couple of years. Thus, many smart solutions infrastructure require a continuous maintenance and support. Either the city authorities have their people to support this or outsource to a company that will be able to maintain throughout the lifetime of the system.
  7. Explore technology options – For example, no single technology can solve all the connectivity challenges. We might have to manage several techniques in a hybrid manner, but we have to ensure there is always interoperability.
  8. Start mobilizing technology – DNA or Device, Network, and Applications of City differs due to the dynamics of the people living in the cities and how they interact with each other. Understanding what kind of devices or sensors and what types of applications are critical for us to get the right data with proper analytics. And don’t forget – all IT infrastructure must be in place, and thus digital transformation is required in the organizations particularly in the backend systems.
  9. Learn from peers – many other cities around the world have successfully carried out pilots and commercial implementations. However, not all the steps they have taken can be replicated locally. Most important things are to learn what makes them fail so that you will not repeat the same mistake.
  10. Find the right partners – Bigger solutions providers don’t have all the answers. Sometimes, the smaller companies are the one that has a simple and cost-effective solution. A Smart City project creates a good ecosystem to grow local indigenous companies. Rather than focusing on importing foreign products, the government should encourage local companies to participate in the project or pilots. This will spur the country’s economic growth and create more jobs. Check out – Smart City Challenge by U.S. Department of Transportation and Paul G. Allen’s Vulcan Inc. — aims to catalyze cities across the country to demonstrate “what’s possible” through scalable solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create innovative and practical climate change solutions.

 

 

What is Horizontal Directional drilling method?

Horizontal directional drilling or HDD, is a method of installing underground pipe, conduit, or cable in a shallow arc along a prescribed bore path by using a surface-launched drilling rig, with minimal impact on the surrounding area.

The tools and techniques used in the horizontal directional drilling (HDD) process are an outgrowth of the oil well drilling industry. The components of a horizontal drilling rig used for pipeline construction are similar to those of an oil well drilling rig with the major exception being that a horizontal drilling rig is equipped with an inclined ramp as opposed to a vertical mast. HDD pilot hole operations are not unlike those involved in drilling a directional oil well. Drill pipe and down hole tools are generally interchangeable and drilling fluid is used throughout the operation to transport drilled spoil, reduce friction, stabilize the hole, etc. Because of these similarities, the process is generally referred to as drilling as opposed to boring.

https://youtu.be/bzFYnNsmZU4

Progress in cost-reducing fiber-laying technologies has progressed to the point that the actual cost of laying an underground Fiber optics  network today is extremely competitive. One of the most remarkable recent developments has been horizontal directional drilling (HDD), also known as trench less deployment.
R. K. Infratel is proud to be associated with Surat Safe City. RK Infratel Ltd is specialist in the operations of Optical Fiber Cable Implementation, Turnkey Project Solutions on OFC and Copper.
Intracity and Intercity Connectivity, OFC Blowing work, HDD Work (for Telecom, Gas, Oil, Water and Drainage), Operation & Maintenance (O & M) work of OFC, NLD and MAN and OFC Splicing Services for Telco’s. We have built more than 350 KMs underground OFC network along with multiple numbers of HDPE duct through HDD method. As a leading Infrastructure Service provider, we have championed ourselves in infrastructure designing, constructing & maintaining of OFC Network.